"We Are This Far From A Turnkey Totalitarian State" - Big Brother Goes Live
George Orwell was right. He was just 30 years early.
In its April cover story, Wired has an exclusive report on the NSA's Utah
Data Center, which is a must read for anyone who believes any privacy is
still a possibility in the United States: "A project of immense secrecy, it
is the final piece in a complex puzzle assembled over the past decade. Its
purpose: to intercept, decipher, analyze, and store vast swaths of the world's
communications as they zap down from satellites and zip through the
underground and undersea cables of international, foreign, and domestic
networks.... Flowing through its servers and routers and stored in
near-bottomless databases will be all forms of communication, including the
complete contents of private emails, cell phone calls, and Google searches,
as well as all sorts of personal data trails-parking receipts, travel
itineraries, bookstore purchases, and other digital "pocket litter."... The
heavily fortified $2 billion center should be up and running in September
2013." In other words, in just over 1 year, virtually anything one
communicates through any traceable medium, or any record of one's existence
in the electronic medium, which these days is everything, will unofficially
be property of the US government to deal with as it sees fit.
The codename of the project: Stellar Wind.
As Wired says, "there is no doubt that it has transformed itself into the
largest, most covert, and potentially most intrusive intelligence agency
And as former NSA operative William Binney who was a senior NSA
crypto-mathematician, and is the basis for the Wired article (which we guess
makes him merely the latest whistleblower to step up: is America suddenly
experiencing an ethical revulsion?), and quit his job only after he realized
that the NSA is now openly trampling the constitution, says as he holds his
thumb and forefinger close together. "We are, like, that far from a turnkey
There was a time when Americans still cared about matters such as personal
privacy. Luckily, they now have iGadgets to keep them distracted as they
hand over their last pieces of individuality to the Tzar of conformity. And
there are those who wonder just what the purpose of the NDAA is.
In the meantime please continue to pretend that America is a democracy...
Here are some of the highlights from the Wired article:
The Utah Data Center in a nutshell, and the summary of the current status of
the NSA's eavesdropping on US citizens.
Under construction by contractors with top-secret clearances, the blandly
named Utah Data Center is being built for the National Security Agency. A
project of immense secrecy, it is the final piece in a complex puzzle
assembled over the past decade. Its purpose: to intercept, decipher,
analyze, and store vast swaths of the world's communications as they zap
down from satellites and zip through the underground and undersea cables of
international, foreign, and domestic networks. The heavily fortified $2
billion center should be up and running in September 2013. Flowing through
its servers and routers and stored in near-bottomless databases will be all
forms of communication, including the complete contents of private emails,
cell phone calls, and Google searches, as well as all sorts of personal data
trails-parking receipts, travel itineraries, bookstore purchases, and other
digital "pocket litter." It is, in some measure, the realization of the
"total information awareness" program created during the first term of the
Bush administration-an effort that was killed by Congress in 2003 after it
caused an outcry over its potential for invading Americans' privacy.
But "this is more than just a data center," says one senior intelligence
official who until recently was involved with the program. The mammoth
Bluffdale center will have another important and far more secret role that
until now has gone unrevealed. It is also critical, he says, for breaking
codes. And code-breaking is crucial, because much of the data that the
center will handle-financial information, stock transactions, business
deals, foreign military and diplomatic secrets, legal documents,
confidential personal communications-will be heavily encrypted. According to
another top official also involved with the program, the NSA made an
enormous breakthrough several years ago in its ability to cryptanalyze, or
break, unfathomably complex encryption systems employed by not only
governments around the world but also many average computer users in the US.
The upshot, according to this official: "Everybody's a target; everybody
with communication is a target."
In the process-and for the first time since Watergate and the other
scandals of the Nixon administration-the NSA has turned its surveillance
apparatus on the US and its citizens. It has established listening posts
throughout the nation to collect and sift through billions of email messages
and phone calls, whether they originate within the country or overseas. It
has created a supercomputer of almost unimaginable speed to look for
patterns and unscramble codes. Finally, the agency has begun building a
place to store all the trillions of words and thoughts and whispers captured
in its electronic net. And, of course, it's all being done in secret. To
those on the inside, the old adage that NSA stands for Never Say Anything
applies more than ever.
....Shrouded in secrecy:
A short time later, Inglis arrived in Bluffdale at the site of the future
data center, a flat, unpaved runway on a little-used part of Camp Williams,
a National Guard training site. There, in a white tent set up for the
occasion, Inglis joined Harvey Davis, the agency's associate director for
installations and logistics, and Utah senator Orrin Hatch, along with a few
generals and politicians in a surreal ceremony. Standing in an odd wooden
sandbox and holding gold-painted shovels, they made awkward jabs at the sand
and thus officially broke ground on what the local media had simply dubbed
"the spy center." Hoping for some details on what was about to be built,
reporters turned to one of the invited guests, Lane Beattie of the Salt Lake
Chamber of Commerce. Did he have any idea of the purpose behind the new
facility in his backyard? "Absolutely not," he said with a self-conscious
half laugh. "Nor do I want them spying on me."
Within days, the tent and sandbox and gold shovels would be gone and
Inglis and the generals would be replaced by some 10,000 construction
workers. "We've been asked not to talk about the project," Rob Moore,
president of Big-D Construction, one of the three major contractors working
on the project, told a local reporter. The plans for the center show an
extensive security system: an elaborate $10 million antiterrorism protection
program, including a fence designed to stop a 15,000-pound vehicle traveling
50 miles per hour, closed-circuit cameras, a biometric identification
system, a vehicle inspection facility, and a visitor-control center.
Inside, the facility will consist of four 25,000-square-foot halls filled
with servers, complete with raised floor space for cables and storage. In
addition, there will be more than 900,000 square feet for technical support
and administration. The entire site will be self-sustaining, with fuel tanks
large enough to power the backup generators for three days in an emergency,
water storage with the capability of pumping 1.7 million gallons of liquid
per day, as well as a sewage system and massive air-conditioning system to
keep all those servers cool. Electricity will come from the center's own
substation built by Rocky Mountain Power to satisfy the 65-megawatt power
demand. Such a mammoth amount of energy comes with a mammoth price tag-about
$40 million a year, according to one estimate.
Presenting the Yottabyte, aka 500 quintillion (500,000,000,000,000,000,000)
pages of text:
Given the facility's scale and the fact that a terabyte of data can now be
stored on a flash drive the size of a man's pinky, the potential amount of
information that could be housed in Bluffdale is truly staggering. But so is
the exponential growth in the amount of intelligence data being produced
every day by the eavesdropping sensors of the NSA and other intelligence
agencies. As a result of this "expanding array of theater airborne and other
sensor networks," as a 2007 Department of Defense report puts it, the
Pentagon is attempting to expand its worldwide communications network, known
as the Global Information Grid, to handle yottabytes (1024 bytes) of data.
(A yottabyte is a septillion bytes-so large that no one has yet coined a
term for the next higher magnitude.)
It needs that capacity because, according to a recent report by Cisco,
global Internet traffic will quadruple from 2010 to 2015, reaching 966
exabytes per year. (A million exabytes equal a yottabyte.) In terms of
scale, Eric Schmidt, Google's former CEO, once estimated that the total of
all human knowledge created from the dawn of man to 2003 totaled 5 exabytes.
And the data flow shows no sign of slowing. In 2011 more than 2 billion of
the world's 6.9 billion people were connected to the Internet. By 2015,
market research firm IDC estimates, there will be 2.7 billion users. Thus,
the NSA's need for a 1-million-square-foot data storehouse. Should the
agency ever fill the Utah center with a yottabyte of information, it would
be equal to about 500 quintillion (500,000,000,000,000,000,000) pages of
Summarizing the NSA's entire spy network:
Before yottabytes of data from the deep web and elsewhere can begin piling
up inside the servers of the NSA's new center, they must be collected. To
better accomplish that, the agency has undergone the largest building boom
in its history, including installing secret electronic monitoring rooms in
major US telecom facilities. Controlled by the NSA, these highly secured
spaces are where the agency taps into the US communications networks, a
practice that came to light during the Bush years but was never acknowledged
by the agency. The broad outlines of the so-called warrantless-wiretapping
program have long been exposed-how the NSA secretly and illegally bypassed
the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, which was supposed to oversee
and authorize highly targeted domestic eavesdropping; how the program
allowed wholesale monitoring of millions of American phone calls and email.
In the wake of the program's exposure, Congress passed the FISA Amendments
Act of 2008, which largely made the practices legal. Telecoms that had
agreed to participate in the illegal activity were granted immunity from
prosecution and lawsuits. What wasn't revealed until now, however, was the
enormity of this ongoing domestic spying program.
Luckily, we now know, courtesy of yet another whistleblower, who has exposed
the NSA's mindblowing efforts at pervasive Big Brotherness:
For the first time, a former NSA official has gone on the record to
describe the program, codenamed Stellar Wind, in detail. William Binney was
a senior NSA crypto-mathematician largely responsible for automating the
agency's worldwide eavesdropping network. A tall man with strands of black
hair across the front of his scalp and dark, determined eyes behind
thick-rimmed glasses, the 68-year-old spent nearly four decades breaking
codes and finding new ways to channel billions of private phone calls and
email messages from around the world into the NSA's bulging databases. As
chief and one of the two cofounders of the agency's Signals Intelligence
Automation Research Center, Binney and his team designed much of the
infrastructure that's still likely used to intercept international and
He explains that the agency could have installed its tapping gear at the
nation's cable landing stations-the more than two dozen sites on the
periphery of the US where fiber-optic cables come ashore. If it had taken
that route, the NSA would have been able to limit its eavesdropping to just
international communications, which at the time was all that was allowed
under US law. Instead it chose to put the wiretapping rooms at key junction
points throughout the country-large, windowless buildings known as
switches-thus gaining access to not just international communications but
also to most of the domestic traffic flowing through the US. The network of
intercept stations goes far beyond the single room in an AT&T building in
San Francisco exposed by a whistle-blower in 2006. "I think there's 10 to 20
of them," Binney says. "That's not just San Francisco; they have them in the
middle of the country and also on the East Coast."
The eavesdropping on Americans doesn't stop at the telecom switches. To
capture satellite communications in and out of the US, the agency also
monitors AT&T's powerful earth stations, satellite receivers in locations
that include Roaring Creek and Salt Creek. Tucked away on a back road in
rural Catawissa, Pennsylvania, Roaring Creek's three 105-foot dishes handle
much of the country's communications to and from Europe and the Middle East.
And on an isolated stretch of land in remote Arbuckle, California, three
similar dishes at the company's Salt Creek station service the Pacific Rim
In other words, the NSA has absolutely everyone covered.
We now know all of this, courtesy of yet another person finally stepping up
and exposing the truth:
Binney left the NSA in late 2001, shortly after the agency launched its
warrantless-wiretapping program. "They violated the Constitution setting it
up," he says bluntly. "But they didn't care. They were going to do it
anyway, and they were going to crucify anyone who stood in the way. When
they started violating the Constitution, I couldn't stay." Binney says
Stellar Wind was far larger than has been publicly disclosed and included
not just eavesdropping on domestic phone calls but the inspection of
domestic email. At the outset the program recorded 320 million calls a day,
he says, which represented about 73 to 80 percent of the total volume of the
agency's worldwide intercepts. The haul only grew from there. According to
Binney-who has maintained close contact with agency employees until a few
years ago-the taps in the secret rooms dotting the country are actually
powered by highly sophisticated software programs that conduct "deep packet
inspection," examining Internet traffic as it passes through the
10-gigabit-per-second cables at the speed of light.
The software, created by a company called Narus that's now part of Boeing,
is controlled remotely from NSA headquarters at Fort Meade in Maryland and
searches US sources for target addresses, locations, countries, and phone
numbers, as well as watch-listed names, keywords, and phrases in email. Any
communication that arouses suspicion, especially those to or from the
million or so people on agency watch lists, are automatically copied or
recorded and then transmitted to the NSA.
Everyone is a target.
The scope of surveillance expands from there, Binney says. Once a name is
entered into the Narus database, all phone calls and other communications to
and from that person are automatically routed to the NSA's recorders.
"Anybody you want, route to a recorder," Binney says. "If your number's in
there? Routed and gets recorded." He adds, "The Narus device allows you to
take it all." And when Bluffdale is completed, whatever is collected will be
routed there for storage and analysis.
After he left the NSA, Binney suggested a system for monitoring people's
communications according to how closely they are connected to an initial
target. The further away from the target-say you're just an acquaintance of
a friend of the target-the less the surveillance. But the agency rejected
the idea, and, given the massive new storage facility in Utah, Binney
suspects that it now simply collects everything. "The whole idea was, how do
you manage 20 terabytes of intercept a minute?" he says. "The way we
proposed was to distinguish between things you want and things you don't
want." Instead, he adds, "they're storing everything they gather." And the
agency is gathering as much as it can.
Once the communications are intercepted and stored, the data-mining
begins. "You can watch everybody all the time with data- mining," Binney
says. Everything a person does becomes charted on a graph, "financial
transactions or travel or anything," he says. Thus, as data like bookstore
receipts, bank statements, and commuter toll records flow in, the NSA is
able to paint a more and more detailed picture of someone's life.
Can you hear me now? The NSA sure can:
According to Binney, one of the deepest secrets of the Stellar Wind
program-again, never confirmed until now-was that the NSA gained warrantless
access to AT&T's vast trove of domestic and international billing records,
detailed information about who called whom in the US and around the world.
As of 2007, AT&T had more than 2.8 trillion records housed in a database at
its Florham Park, New Jersey, complex.
Verizon was also part of the program, Binney says, and that greatly
expanded the volume of calls subject to the agency's domestic eavesdropping.
"That multiplies the call rate by at least a factor of five," he says. "So
you're over a billion and a half calls a day." (Spokespeople for Verizon and
AT&T said their companies would not comment on matters of national
In fact, as you talk now, the NSA's computers are listening, recording it
all, and looking for keywords.
The NSA also has the ability to eavesdrop on phone calls directly and in
real time. According to Adrienne J. Kinne, who worked both before and after
9/11 as a voice interceptor at the NSA facility in Georgia, in the wake of
the World Trade Center attacks "basically all rules were thrown out the
window, and they would use any excuse to justify a waiver to spy on
Americans." Even journalists calling home from overseas were included. "A
lot of time you could tell they were calling their families," she says,
"incredibly intimate, personal conversations." Kinne found the act of
eavesdropping on innocent fellow citizens personally distressing. "It's
almost like going through and finding somebody's diary," she says.
There is a simple matter of encryption... Which won't be an issue for the
NSA shortly, once the High Productivity Computing Systems project goes
Anyone-from terrorists and weapons dealers to corporations, financial
institutions, and ordinary email senders-can use it to seal their messages,
plans, photos, and documents in hardened data shells. For years, one of the
hardest shells has been the Advanced Encryption Standard, one of several
algorithms used by much of the world to encrypt data. Available in three
different strengths-128 bits, 192 bits, and 256 bits-it's incorporated in
most commercial email programs and web browsers and is considered so strong
that the NSA has even approved its use for top-secret US government
communications. Most experts say that a so-called brute-force computer
attack on the algorithm-trying one combination after another to unlock the
encryption-would likely take longer than the age of the universe. For a
128-bit cipher, the number of trial-and-error attempts would be 340
Breaking into those complex mathematical shells like the AES is one of the
key reasons for the construction going on in Bluffdale. That kind of
cryptanalysis requires two major ingredients: super-fast computers to
conduct brute-force attacks on encrypted messages and a massive number of
those messages for the computers to analyze. The more messages from a given
target, the more likely it is for the computers to detect telltale patterns,
and Bluffdale will be able to hold a great many messages. "We questioned it
one time," says another source, a senior intelligence manager who was also
involved with the planning. "Why were we building this NSA facility? And,
boy, they rolled out all the old guys-the crypto guys." According to the
official, these experts told then-director of national intelligence Dennis
Blair, "You've got to build this thing because we just don't have the
capability of doing the code-breaking." It was a candid admission. In the
long war between the code breakers and the code makers-the tens of thousands
of cryptographers in the worldwide computer security industry-the code
breakers were admitting defeat.
So the agency had one major ingredient-a massive data storage
facility-under way. Meanwhile, across the country in Tennessee, the
government was working in utmost secrecy on the other vital element: the
most powerful computer the world has ever known.
The plan was launched in 2004 as a modern-day Manhattan Project. Dubbed
the High Productivity Computing Systems program, its goal was to advance
computer speed a thousandfold, creating a machine that could execute a
quadrillion (1015) operations a second, known as a petaflop-the computer
equivalent of breaking the land speed record. And as with the Manhattan
Project, the venue chosen for the supercomputing program was the town of Oak
Ridge in eastern Tennessee, a rural area where sharp ridges give way to low,
scattered hills, and the southwestward-flowing Clinch River bends sharply to
the southeast. About 25 miles from Knoxville, it is the "secret city" where
uranium- 235 was extracted for the first atomic bomb. A sign near the exit
read: what you see here, what you do here, what you hear here, when you
leave here, let it stay here. Today, not far from where that sign stood, Oak
Ridge is home to the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
and it's engaged in a new secret war. But this time, instead of a bomb of
almost unimaginable power, the weapon is a computer of almost unimaginable
At the DOE's unclassified center at Oak Ridge, work progressed at a
furious pace, although it was a one-way street when it came to cooperation
with the closemouthed people in Building 5300. Nevertheless, the
unclassified team had its Cray XT4 supercomputer upgraded to a
warehouse-sized XT5. Named Jaguar for its speed, it clocked in at 1.75
petaflops, officially becoming the world's fastest computer in 2009.
Meanwhile, over in Building 5300, the NSA succeeded in building an even
faster supercomputer. "They made a big breakthrough," says another former
senior intelligence official, who helped oversee the program. The NSA's
machine was likely similar to the unclassified Jaguar, but it was much
faster out of the gate, modified specifically for cryptanalysis and targeted
against one or more specific algorithms, like the AES. In other words, they
were moving from the research and development phase to actually attacking
extremely difficult encryption systems. The code-breaking effort was up and
The breakthrough was enormous, says the former official, and soon
afterward the agency pulled the shade down tight on the project, even within
the intelligence community and Congress. "Only the chairman and vice
chairman and the two staff directors of each intelligence committee were
told about it," he says. The reason? "They were thinking that this computing
breakthrough was going to give them the ability to crack current public
So kiss PGP goodbye. In fact kiss every aspect of your privacy goodbye.
Yottabytes and exaflops, septillions and undecillions-the race for
computing speed and data storage goes on. In his 1941 story "The Library of
Babel," Jorge Luis Borges imagined a collection of information where the
entire world's knowledge is stored but barely a single word is understood.
In Bluffdale the NSA is constructing a library on a scale that even Borges
might not have contemplated. And to hear the masters of the agency tell it,
it's only a matter of time until every word is illuminated.
As for the Constitution... What Constitution?
Before he gave up and left the NSA, Binney tried to persuade officials to
create a more targeted system that could be authorized by a court. At the
time, the agency had 72 hours to obtain a legal warrant, and Binney devised
a method to computerize the system. "I had proposed that we automate the
process of requesting a warrant and automate approval so we could manage a
couple of million intercepts a day, rather than subvert the whole process."
But such a system would have required close coordination with the courts,
and NSA officials weren't interested in that, Binney says. Instead they
continued to haul in data on a grand scale. Asked how many communications-"transactions,"
in NSA's lingo-the agency has intercepted since 9/11, Binney estimates the
number at "between 15 and 20 trillion, the aggregate over 11 years."
When Barack Obama took office, Binney hoped the new administration might
be open to reforming the program to address his constitutional concerns. He
and another former senior NSA analyst, J. Kirk Wiebe, tried to bring the
idea of an automated warrant-approval system to the attention of the
Department of Justice's inspector general. They were given the brush-off.
"They said, oh, OK, we can't comment," Binney says.
In conclusion, the NSA's own whistleblower summarizes it best.
Sitting in a restaurant not far from NSA headquarters, the place where he
spent nearly 40 years of his life, Binney held his thumb and forefinger
close together. "We are, like, that far from a turnkey totalitarian state,"
.... And nobody cares.